Minggu, 31 Mei 2009







Passive Voice
Passive voice is a grammatical voice in which the subject receives the subject receives the action of a transitive verb, and passive refers more generally to verb using this construction and the passages in which they are used.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voices note the following:
- The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
- The finite form of the verb is changed (to be + pas participate)
- The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

 Agent
In a passive clause, we usually we a phrase beginning with by if we want to mention the agent-the person or thing that does the action, or that causes what happens

Example :
My Mother makes sandwich every morning
Subject + V1+ S/es + O + C(adv. Of time)

Sandwich is made by my mother every morning
Subject + to be + V3 agent C(adv. Of time)

Present Continuous :
S + to be + being + V3 (past participle)

Present Perfect :
S + has/have + been + V3 (past participle)

Present Continuous :
Active : A young boy is catching a butterfly
Passive : A butter fly is being caught by a young boy


Noun Phrase
A noun phrase is other a single noun or any group of words containing noun or a pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of averb.

For example, ‘they’ , ‘books’, and ‘the books’, are noun phrases, but ‘book’ is just a noun, as you can see in these sentences (in which the noun phrases are all in bold)

- Structure of Noun Phrases:
• A beautiful old painting on the wall

When you use a noun in front of another noun, you never put adjectives between them, you put adjectives in front of the first noun.
Example : We just spoke with a young American boy

Noun phrase can be in form of gerund (base + ing) or gerund and other nouns compounding.
Example : Passing the exam watching TV


Finite Verbs
A finite verbs is a verb that is inflected for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs. Finite verbs can form independent clauses, which can stand by their own as complete sentences.

Every grammatically correct sentence or clouse must contain a finite verb; sentence fragments not containing finite verb are described as phrases.

Some interjections can play the same role. Even in English, a sentence like thanks for you help! Has an interjection where it could have a subject and a fibite verb form compare I appreciate your help!

A verb is a world that expression an occurrence, act, or made, of being, finite verbs, sometimes called main verbs, are limited by time (see tense), person, and number.

Verb forms that are not finite include the infinite
Participles (e.g, the broken window..!, The wheezing gentleman…”)

Gerunds and gerundives 
English has three kinds of verbals : participles, which function as adjectives, which have noun-like, adjective –like, and adverb-like functions each of these is also used in various common constructs; for example, the past participle is used in farming the perfect aspect (to have done).

Other kinds of verbals, such as gerunds and gerundives, exist in other languages.
Example :
The Finite verbs are the under lived work
One day a crow finds a tasty piece of cheese she picks it up, flaps her wings, and flies to a high branch of a tree to eat it. (…)
Source : International Story


News Item
News item is factual text which informs the reader about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Social function of news item is : to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

- Generic Structure
 Newsworthy event (s) : recount the event in summary form
 Background Event (s) : elaborate what happened, to WHOM, in WHAT circumstances
 Sources : comment by participants in, withesses to and authorities to and authorities expert on the event 

- Signification grammar features :
 Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
 Generally using simple past tense
 Use of material processes to retell the event
 Using action verbs , (,) : were, run, go, kill, etc
 Using saying verbs , (.) : say, tell
 Focus on circumstances
 Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stages

There are some rules that can help to make newspaper headlines more comprehensible
1. The passive voice is used with out the approprianto form of “be”
2. It is unusually to find complex forms, generally the simple present form is used
3. The present progressive tense is used, usually to describe something that is changing orde ueloping, but the auxiliary verb is usually left out
4. To refer to the future, headlines often use the infinitive
5. Headlines are not always complete sentences


Descriptive Text
The aim of descriptive text : to describe the characteristics of particular person, thing, or place.

Text Structure
- Identification : Identifies thing, person, place, phenomenon to be described
- Description : Gives the information of particular thing, person, or place being discussed or describes parts, qualities, or characteristics.

Grammatical Features :
- Who? What?
- Using lingking verb and simple present tense
- Epithet : adjective or adjective phrase
- Attributive (the)
- Use of attributive and identifying process

Example Of Descriptive Text :
We have three family pets : a dog, a cat, and a tortoise

- The Dogs name is Benjamin. He is golden lambrador. He is beautiful. He has big brown eyes and a long tail. He is very friendly dog, but he is sometimes a little stupid. Dogs are expensive to keep bubt the yare fun to play with
- Our cat is named Martha. She is quite young, but she is not a kitten. She is very pretty. She has black and white for and green eyes. She’s smart, too and very clean.
- The tortoise’s name is Rocky. He has short, fat legs a long neck, and a very hard shell. HE is also very old and slow. He’s ugly and dirty, but I like him


Direct and Indirect Speeches
Direct Speech refers to reproducing another person’s exact words or saying exactly what someone has said (sometimes called quoted speech)

We use quotation marks (“__________”) and it should be world for word

For Example :
Nicky said, “it’s hot
“it’s hot, “Nicky said”

Indirect speech refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words that doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word

Indirect Speech is sometimes called reported speech 

The tense usually changes when reporting speech this is because we are usually talking about a time in the post and obviously the person who spoke or ginally spoke in the past.

The verbs there fore usually have to be in the fast too

- Note : the reporting verbs that are usually used to report imperative sent are : Tell, order, command, ask, warn, remind
- Don’t forget to mention the indirect object father warned me motto drive fast
- When we want to report what someone said, we do not usually repeat their exact words, we use words. We can use reporting verbs, such as tell, say, ask followed by that–clause?
Example : My mother said that she got up at 5 O’clock
- When reporting verbs is in the present, present perfect, or future, there is no change of tense in the words reported
Example : 
- She will tell you
- She has just haid

In times expressions and pronouns
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Now Then
Today/Tonight That day/ That night
Last week The previous week
Ago Before

Sometimes we need to report someone’s questions the reported question are introduced with the verb ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc.

Jumat, 29 Mei 2009


Modal In The Pastform


Present       Past
Can               Could 
Will               Would
Shall             Should
May              Might

1. Could + Verbbase
- To offer suggestions or possibilities
Example :
Doraemon : Oh no! left my short’s
Nobita : Don’t wori, Dora you could borrow my shorts
- To indicate that the ability existed in the past but doesn’t exist now
Example :
Ruther : Ton, can you climb the aple trees
Tony : Well … I could climb apple tree when I was so young. But I thing I’m to heavy to climb it

- To Express polite requests
Example :
 Could I borrow your pencil (please)?
 Could you lend me your jacket now?
 Could you please close the door
 Could you pass the salt
2. Would + Verbbase
- For an action that was repeated regularly in the past
Example :
When I was a child, I would visit my grandparents every weekend

- Insert rather into the pattern and use this expressions to express preferences
Example :
Angga : Ehich country would you rather visit?
Maria : I Would rather visit Tara than somelia
- To express polite requests
Example :
Budi : Would you mind cycling with me, Nada?
Nada : No, not at all. It would be nice

3. Should + Verbbase
- To give definite advice (advisability)
Example :
Derby : You should paint your door, Romeo. It looks terrible
Romeo : Yes, I know I should

4. Might + Verbbase
- To tell possibilities
Exmple :
David : Where is Deddy?
Copperfield : He might be in the studio with Kalina

- To express polite requests
Example :
Tian : Might I borrow your coat?
Chris : I’m afraid not. It has been brought by Danny for week sand I don’t know when he‘ll return it


Narrative Text
Narrative text is a text which contains about story (fiction/ non fiction/ tales/ folktales/ fables/ myths/ epic) and in its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.

Generic Structure
- Orientation
- Complication
- Evaluation (Optional)
- Resolution

- Orientation : It is about WHO, WHEN, and WHERE the story happened
- Evaluation : Is optional; it is usually used to make the story. Complication is the part of the story in which there is a conflict among the characters of the story (it is possible to make more than one conflict in a complication), and it is the climax of the story (the big problem in the story). A story can here more than one complication.
- Resolution : It is the solution of the problem. It can be a happy or sad ending. In resolution, the solution or the way out of the conflict/ the big problem must be written
- Coda : It is the change of one of the character or two, or the meaning of the story that can be caught as a moral value of life

Example : The story of Cinderella, Snow White, Snow Maiden, The Little Pear Girl, The Ugly Duckling, etc.


a. The definition of advertisement.
Advertisement is an information for persuading and motivating people so that they will attract to the service and the things that are offered or informed.
b. Function of advertisement:
- Promotion
- Communication
- Information
c. In making advertisement, keep the following points :
1. Language of advertisement : 
- Using the correct or suitable words
- Using the interesting and suggestive expressions
- Text of advertisement should be directed to the goals
2. Content of advertisement :
- Objective and honest
- Brief and clear 
- Not allude group or other producer

d. Kinds of advertisement :
- Family advertisement
- Invitation advertisement 
- Sponsored advertisement 
- Requested advertisement
- News advertisement 
- Announcement advertisement
- Goods advertisement
- Merit advertisement
e. Media of advertisement
- By television
- By radio
- Billboard
- Leaflet
- Pamflet etc.